Biodegradable
The process by which naturally occurring organic substances break down and are incorporated into the surrounding soil or substrate.

Broadcast
A method of spreading seed across a wide area. Broadcasting can be affected by either hand or mechanical device.

Brown Top
(Agrostis sp) A member of the grass family also referred to as Highland Browntop Bent. Usually used in combination with fescue or similar species and is a staple in most grass seed mixes.

Control mat
Control mat or weed control mat is a woven cloth designed to suppress weed growth by reducing light. Control mats must allow air to circulate to avoid soil souring and the development and infestation of fungus and bacteria. Weed mat can be made of either organic or artificial fibre (often polypropylene)

Fertiliser
The applications of nutrients to the soil or growing medium with the intention of making it more fertile.

Fescue
A perennial grass of the genus (Festuca)

Fungus
Any of a kingdom (Fungi) of saprophytic and parasitic spore-producing eukaryotic typically filamentous organisms formerly classified as plants that lack chlorophyll and include molds, rusts, mildews, smuts, mushrooms, and yeasts

Fungicide
An agent that destroys or inhibits the growth of fungi.

Germination
The action of plant material beginning to sprout or grow.

Grass
A common term applied to a family (graminae) consisting of over 6000 species. A highly diverse plant, as well as the commonly thought of lawn variety of grass, bamboo and sugar cane are also types of grass.

Grass Grub
Grass grubs are the larvae or immature stages of the common brown beetle that appears at dusk in spring and summer from turf and grasslands, ranging from the most select bowling green to the roughest, sourest hill country. The beetle can cause economic problems, but the apparently feeble Grub is the most serious agricultural pest New Zealand has known. Only the beetles come above the soil surface, and then for just a few hours at dusk on warm still nights

Grass grubs attack the roots of most pasture plants, but their numbers are highest under susceptible species such as white clover and ryegrass. Tall fescue supports relatively high populations of grass grub but with little effect on plant production.

Insects
Any of numerous small invertebrate animals (as spiders or centipedes) that are more or less obviously segmented

Insecticide
An agent that destroys insects

Landscaping
The action of modifying environmental surroundings for ornamental and/or functional purposes.

Lucerne
Lucerne is a perennial legume species with an extended taproot that allows the plant access to water and nutrients deep in the soil profile and which therefore affords it superior drought tolerance in comparison to grass pastures in lower rainfall areas.

Matrix
Fibrous mat consisting of organic materials

Mummification
Seed encapsulated in de-hydrated hydro-seed mix/mulch causing germination failure. Seeds can lie dormant in this state and will germinate when moisture eventually penetrates the mix.

Nitrogen
a chemical element that has the symbol N and atomic number 7 and atomic weight 14.0067. Elemental nitrogen is a colorless, odorless, tasteless and mostly inert diatomic gas at standard conditions, constituting 78.08% by volume of Earth’ atmosphere.

Nitrogen is a part of all living cells and is a necessary part of all proteins, enzymes and metabolic processes involved in the synthesis and transfer of energy. Nitrogen is a part of chlorophyll, the green pigment of the plant that is responsible for photosynthesis. Nitrogen Helps plants with rapid growth, increasing seed and fruit production and improving the quality of leaf and forage crops.

Nitrogen often comes from fertilizer application and from the air (legumes get their N from the atmosphere, water or rainfall contributes very little nitrogen)

Organic
Matter derived from once living organism or produced by a living organism. Can be equally applied to both plant and animal matter.

Organic glues
Glues developed using materials gathered from the environment without input of materials external to the organic process.

Paspalm
(Paspalum dilatatum) Paspalum is a grass weed which has very short stout rhizomes, which join plants together to form dense clumps. This weed is mainly a problem in turf, as it forms unsightly clumps in lawns which are difficult to remove selectively. In lawns, paspalum is one of the broadest leafed grasses likely to be found. As the shoots tend to grow quite flat to the soil surface under a mowing regime, they are able to survive constant mowing to a low cutting height.

pH (Level)
The level of acidity in the substance being measured.

Poa
A commonly distributed turf weed. Poa is an annual species that is notoriously difficult to eradicate once established. It is a member of the grass family and thrives in the same conditions ideal for a healthy lawn.

Porina Moth
(Wiseana cervinata) A native New Zealand moth whose larvae stage damage pasture grasses, covers and lucerne.

Ryegrass
(Lolium) is a genus of nine species of tufted grasses, family Poaceae. Also called tares these plants are native to Europe, Asia and northern Africa, but are widely cultivated and naturalised elsewhere. Ryegrasses are closely related to the fescues Festuca.

Scarifying
The action of removing dead organic matter from the base of grassed areas to promote plant growth.

Silt
Fine particles of soil or rock. Silt is often carried by water in suspension until deposition occurs. Run-off containing silt is the major contributor to sedimentation of waterways, lakes, harbours and coastal areas.

Sod
Sod or turf is grass and the part of the soil beneath it held together by the roots, or a piece of this material.

Sprigging
The propagation of grass by means of stolons or small divisions

Springtail
A tiny wingless animal omnipresent within New Zealand soil fauna capable of living on the surface and at depth. In numbers this animal can prove destructive to lawn seed and young seedlings. They play am important role in the decomposition and nutrient cycling in soil ecosystems.

Stolons
Stolons are horizontal stems that grow at the soil surface or below ground. They form new plants at the ends or at the nodes. Stolons are often called runners.

Surfactant
A wetting agent made from an organic compound that reduces the surface tension of a liquid to promote the ease of distribution onto the applied surface.

Tackifier
An organic glue designed to bond applied materials such as hydromulch to the substrate.

Topsoil
Surface soil usually including the organic layer in which plants have most of their roots. Normally richer in organic nutrients than lower layers due to biodegradation.

Turf
The general description given to layer of soil bound together by grass. Often supplied in roles or slabs.

Vegetation
The plant life or plant cover of a nominated area.